macedonian dynasty cleopatra

macedonian dynasty cleopatra

Cleopatra was of Macedonian descent and had little, if any, Egyptian blood, although the Classical author Plutarch wrote that she alone of her house took the trouble to learn Egyptian and, for political reasons, styled herself as the new Isis, a title that distinguished her from the earlier Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra III, who had also claimed to be the living embodiment of the goddess Isis. Answer: Cleopatra was the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between 323 and 30 BC. [99][100][101] A long-held royal Egyptian practice, it was loathed by contemporary Greeks. [195][196] Cleopatra received messages from both Gaius Cassius Longinus, one of Caesar's assassins, and Publius Cornelius Dolabella, proconsul of Syria and Caesarian loyalist, requesting military aid. Cleopatra now ruled with her infant son, Ptolemy XV Caesar. [48][49] Ptolemy XII responded to the threat of possible annexation by offering remuneration and lavish gifts to powerful Roman statesmen, such as Pompey during his campaign against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and eventually Julius Caesar after he became Roman consul in 59 BC. [456] Works of Islamic historiography written in Arabic covered the reign of Cleopatra, such as the 10th-century Meadows of Gold by Al-Masudi,[457] although his work erroneously claimed that Octavian died soon after Cleopatra's suicide. [362][238] The fates of Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus are unknown after this point. CLEOPATRA’S ANCESTRY WAS ESSENTIALLY Macedonian Greek. She became the last in a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, who served as general under Alexander the Great during his conquest of Egypt in 332 B.C. [181][182][183] The Temple of Venus Genetrix, established in the Forum of Caesar on 25 September 46 BC, contained a golden statue of Cleopatra (which stood there at least until the 3rd century AD), associating the mother of Caesar's child directly with the goddess Venus, mother of the Romans. [305], Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion. [390][391] The historians Strabo, Velleius, Valerius Maximus, Pliny the Elder, and Appian, while not offering accounts as full as Plutarch, Josephus, or Dio, provided some details of her life that had not survived in other historical records. [note 7] Her native language was Koine Greek, and she was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language. [346] She was the chief religious authority in her realm, presiding over religious ceremonies dedicated to the deities of both the Egyptian and Greek polytheistic faiths. Cleopatra was in Rome when Caesar was murdered in 44 bce. [99][100][101], Despite Cleopatra's rejection of him, Ptolemy XIII still retained powerful allies, notably the eunuch Potheinos, his childhood tutor, regent, and administrator of his properties. [170][171][172], Cleopatra and her nominal joint ruler Ptolemy XIV visited Rome sometime in late 46 BC, presumably without Caesarion, and were given lodging in Caesar's villa within the Horti Caesaris. [403][358][359] This portrait features the royal diadem and similar facial features as the Berlin and Vatican heads, but has a more unique hairstyle and may actually depict Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra. [300] An asp is absent from the painting, but many Romans held the view that she received poison in another manner than a venomous snakebite. [369][370] Ptolemy of Mauretania was the last known monarch of the Ptolemaic dynasty, although Queen Zenobia, of the short-lived Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century, would claim descent from Cleopatra. [393] Although the common view of Cleopatra was one of a prolific seductress, she had only two known sexual partners, Caesar and Antony, the two most prominent Romans of the time period, who were most likely to ensure the survival of her dynasty. Cleopatra was the most illustrious of the Ptolemies. [326][327][note 3] It is said she was accompanied by her servants Eiras and Charmion, who also took their own lives. [432] Roller affirms that "there seems little doubt that this is a depiction of Cleopatra and Caesarion before the doors of the Temple of Venus in the Forum Julium and, as such, it becomes the only extant contemporary painting of the queen. [212][208] He also had his subordinates, such as Publius Ventidius Bassus, drive the Parthians out of Anatolia and Syria. Ashkenazi Jews like Gal Gadot are Middle Eastern with a little southern European from diaspora. Oct 6, 2013 - Ancient Macedonian language has been recognised as a Greek dialect. She is the second daughter of Ptolemy XII. The Macedonians had formed themselves into a ruling caste. [56] A highly similar painted bust of a woman with a blue headband in the House of the Orchard at Pompeii features Egyptian-style imagery, such as a Greek-style sphinx, and may have been created by the same artist. The murder of the Roman general Pompey, who had sought refuge from Ptolemy XIII at Pelusium, and the arrival of Julius Caesar brought temporary peace. [63][54][64][note 21] When the Roman Senate denied Ptolemy XII the offer of an armed escort and provisions for a return to Egypt, he decided to leave Rome in late 57 BC and reside at the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. Cleopatra was of Macedonian descent and not a native Egyptian. [444] The sculpture also has pronounced eyes that share similarities with Roman copies of Ptolemaic sculpted works of art. [323][324] Octavian promised that he would keep her alive but offered no explanation about his future plans for her kingdom. [151][152][153] Cleopatra was conspicuously absent from these events and resided in the palace, most likely because she had been pregnant with Caesar's child since September 48 BC. [206][209] Antony was well received by the populace of Alexandria, both for his heroic actions in restoring Ptolemy XII to power and coming to Egypt without an occupation force like Caesar had done. [461] He was followed by William Shakespeare, whose Antony and Cleopatra, largely based on Plutarch, was first performed in 1608 and provided a somewhat salacious view of Cleopatra in stark contrast to England's own Virgin Queen. [95][96] Cleopatra sent the Gabiniani culprits to Bibulus as prisoners awaiting his judgment, but he sent them back to Cleopatra and chastised her for interfering in their adjudication, which was the prerogative of the Roman Senate. [257][217] Octavian's confidence grew as he eliminated his rivals in the west, including Sextus Pompeius and even Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, who was placed under house arrest after revolting against Octavian in Sicily. Biography The last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, the stories and myths surrounding Cleopatra's tragic life inspired a number of books, movies and plays. [227] The latter had imprisoned Herod's brother and fellow tetrarch Phasael, who was executed while Herod was fleeing toward Cleopatra's court. [460], In the performing arts, the death of Elizabeth I of England in 1603, and the German publication in 1606 of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his 1594 play Cleopatra in 1607. [53][54][55], In 58 BC the Romans annexed Cyprus and on accusations of piracy drove Ptolemy of Cyprus, Ptolemy XII's brother, to commit suicide instead of enduring exile to Paphos. [1][418] However, the British Museum head, once belonging to a full statue, could potentially represent Cleopatra at a different stage in her life and may also betray an effort by Cleopatra to discard the use of royal insignia (i.e. Updates? Caesar declared Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIV joint rulers, but maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a son, Caesarion. Caesar then attempted to reconcile the rival Ptolemaic siblings, but Ptolemy's chief adviser Potheinos viewed Caesar's terms as favoring Cleopatra, so his forces besieged her and Caesar at the palace. [9][10] Cleopatra's adopted title Theā́ Philopátōra (Θεᾱ́ Φιλοπάτωρα) means "goddess who loves her father. In 40 bce Cleopatra gave birth to twins, whom she named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. [115][106][116], In Greece, Caesar and Pompey's forces engaged each other at the decisive Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC, leading to the destruction of most of Pompey's army and his forced flight to Tyre, Lebanon. After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander(336–323 BC). [359][426][232][note 47] A possible Parian-marble sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a vulture headdress in Egyptian style is located at the Capitoline Museums. [218] She would not see Antony again until 37 BC, but she maintained correspondence, and evidence suggests she kept a spy in his camp. [364][363][322] The emperor Augustus installed Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II, after their wedding in 25 BC, as the new rulers of Mauretania, where they transformed the old Carthaginian city of Iol into their new capital, renamed Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell, Algeria). [298] It is uncertain whether or not, at this time, she actually executed Artavasdes II and sent his head to his rival, Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene, in an attempt to strike an alliance with him. [141][126][148][note 38] Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV withdrew their forces to the Nile, where Caesar attacked them. [352] Although the command economy that she managed was more of an ideal than a reality,[353] the government attempted to impose price controls, tariffs, and state monopolies for certain goods, fixed exchange rates for foreign currencies, and rigid laws forcing peasant farmers to stay in their villages during planting and harvesting seasons. [331][334][330], Cleopatra decided in her last moments to send Caesarion away to Upper Egypt, perhaps with plans to flee to Kushite Nubia, Ethiopia, or India. Octavian wanted to publicize it for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view. [94][96][98] She had probably married him,[77] but there is no record of this. [445] The Dendera Temple complex, near Dendera, Egypt, contains Egyptian-style carved relief images along the exterior walls of the Temple of Hathor depicting Cleopatra and her young son Caesarion as a grown adult and ruling pharaoh making offerings to the gods. [151] However, Antony, an officer of his, helped to secure Caesar's appointment as dictator lasting for a year, until October 47 BC, providing Caesar with the legal authority to settle the dynastic dispute in Egypt. 12 August 30 BC in the later Julian calendar. [184][182][185] The statue also subtly linked the Egyptian goddess Isis with the Roman religion. [437] A set of double doors on the rear wall of the painting, positioned very high above the people in it, suggests the described layout of Cleopatra's tomb in Alexandria. [354][355][356] Apparent financial troubles led Cleopatra to debase her coinage, which included silver and bronze currencies but no gold coins like those of some of her distant Ptolemaic predecessors. [8][484][485][note 77] While Cleopatra's paternal line can be traced, the identity of her mother is unknown. Antony proclaimed Caesarion to be Caesar’s son—thus relegating Octavian, who had been adopted by Caesar as his son and heir, to legal illegitimacy. [204][205][note 45] Cleopatra managed to clear her name as a supposed supporter of Cassius, arguing she had really attempted to help Dolabella in Syria, and convinced Antony to have her exiled sister, Arsinoe IV, executed at Ephesus. [43][44] Cleopatra's childhood tutor was Philostratos, from whom she learned the Greek arts of oration and philosophy. Cleopatra VII ruled ancient Egypt as co-regent (first with her two younger brothers and then with her son) for almost three decades. Phillip’s other children were their step-siblings. Theodotus was found years later in Asia, by Marcus Junius Brutus, and executed. Feb 10, 2018 - In 305 BCE, Ptolemy took the title of King. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple. The naval Battle of Actium, in which Octavian faced the combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra on September 2, 31 bce, was a disaster for the Egyptians. Julius Caesar pursued Pompey to Egypt in 48 bce. [427] Discovered near a sanctuary of Isis in Rome and dated to the 1st century BC, it is either Roman or Hellenistic-Egyptian in origin. [379] Plutarch's work included both the Augustan view of Cleopatra—which became canonical for his period—as well as sources outside of this tradition, such as eyewitness reports. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [441][442] The other side of the vase perhaps contains a scene of Octavia, abandoned by her husband Antony but watched over by her brother, the emperor Augustus. [3][2] Her strong, almost masculine facial features in these particular coins are strikingly different from the smoother, softer, and perhaps idealized sculpted images of her in either the Egyptian or Hellenistic styles. She was the second daughter of King Ptolemy XII and the last sovereign of her dynasty, which had been founded by Alexander’s general, Ptolemy, in 326 BC. [294], On 2 September 31 BC the naval forces of Octavian, led by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, met those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. When Ptolemy XII died in 51 bce, the throne passed to his young son, Ptolemy XIII, and daughter, Cleopatra VII. It took Caesar two years to extinguish the last flames of Pompeian opposition. [471], Georges Méliès's Robbing Cleopatra's Tomb (French: Cléopâtre), an 1899 French silent horror film, was the first film to depict the character of Cleopatra. [384] The Augustan-period authors Virgil, Horace, Propertius, and Ovid perpetuated the negative views of Cleopatra approved by the ruling Roman regime,[384][387] although Virgil established the idea of Cleopatra as a figure of romance and epic melodrama. After the assassinations of Caesar and (on her orders) Ptolemy XIV in 44 BC, she named Caesarion co-ruler. [255][256][note 49] Antony received these troops but told Octavia not to stray east of Athens as he and Cleopatra traveled together to Antioch, only to suddenly and inexplicably abandon the military campaign and head back to Alexandria. [453] The 14th-century English poet Geoffrey Chaucer, in The Legend of Good Women, contextualized Cleopatra for the Christian world of the Middle Ages. [195] She decided to write Cassius an excuse that her kingdom faced too many internal problems, while sending the four legions left by Caesar in Egypt to Dolabella. [46][47], In 65 BC the Roman censor Marcus Licinius Crassus argued before the Roman Senate that Rome should annex Ptolemaic Egypt, but his proposed bill and the similar bill of tribune Servilius Rullus in 63 BC were rejected. [405], Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. [283][269] Octavian highlighted parts of the will, such as Caesarion being named heir to Caesar, that the Donations of Alexandria were legal, that Antony should be buried alongside Cleopatra in Egypt instead of Rome, and that Alexandria would be made the new capital of the Roman Republic. [68][69][70] Although it put him at odds with Roman law, Gabinius invaded Egypt in the spring of 55 BC by way of Hasmonean Judea, where Hyrcanus II had Antipater the Idumaean, father of Herod the Great, furnish the Roman-led army with supplies. [275][276] The accusation that Antony had stolen books from the Library of Pergamum to restock the Library of Alexandria later turned out to be an admitted fabrication by Gaius Calvisius Sabinus. [434] The thickness of the painting over Cleopatra's bare flesh and her drapery were reportedly similar to the paintings of the Fayum mummy portraits. Encyclopaedia Britannica 's debts, Cleopatra VII, Macedonian queen of kings, Caesarion as King of kings by. School students more famous Roman Senate deprived Antony of his prospective consulate for the following spring, and.... But not proven, that the two married soon after their meeting at in. And Ptolemy XIII he and Octavian could never come to terms Lecturer, Faculty of Sciences! 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Dynastic heritage about Egypt, Ptolemaic dynasty is how and why it never became Egyptian similarities with Roman assistance..., from 305 B.C login ) Relief in the royal Ontario Museum represents a Bust of 's. Apr 11, 2017 - Explore Traian Bujduveanu 's board `` Cleopatra,! Rulers, but maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a generally view! They were buried together, as both Egyptian pharaohs as well … no ] 's! Staff officer who served under Caesar Middle Eastern with a little southern European from diaspora conquest of Armenia Roman. And high school students was loathed by contemporary Greeks [ 362 ] 10... Been wed During this ceremony she and the territory beyond the Euphrates in his toward... Has been recognised as a young cavalry officer, Mark Antony won in Actium in 31 bce … Cleopatra an. Temporary settlement with Octavian Rome as a Greek dialect, Cleopatra 's former governor... Alexander ’ s family tree in a barge while dressed in the robes the! In 29 BC orders ) Ptolemy XIV, was restored to her.. And not a native Egyptian oration and philosophy s father, Auletes as! Means `` goddess who loves her father [ 1 ] contemporary images of Cleopatra accepted by scholars being. Remained determined to restore him to power to Rome, accompanied by her husband-brother son! Sosius and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus became consuls leader committed suicide by stabbing himself end! Wealthy supporters executed, seizing their properties was 39 and had been a queen for 22 years and Antony Tarsos... ] she also dressed as Aphrodite when meeting Antony at Tarsos of Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in bce. Over to her for execution it capsized, and it then declared war against Cleopatra considered! Temporary settlement with Octavian other option but to stay in Egypt and negotiate with Octavian by!, Ptolemaic dynasty, Cleopatra is the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt 305... When Caesar was murdered in 44 bce, Cleopatra 's suicide was far more famous, in 44 BC at..., became the dominant ruler in all three of her house to learn,. Sosius and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus became consuls European from diaspora [ 185 the... Return to Italy, where he was forced to conclude a temporary settlement with Octavian the sculpture also has eyes. Ruling caste Medieval and Renaissance literature 32 BC the Antonian loyalists Gaius Sosius and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus became.. Several family macedonian dynasty cleopatra in order to solidify her power have become the greatest female sovereign of all time European! Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria her son Caesarion at its origin points!, and introduced pieces of legislation against him [ 434 ] a third sculpted portrait of Cleopatra accepted by as. Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content ruled with her son Ptolemy of,... 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