These Hellenized Scythians were known as the "young Scythians". Many supposed kings in India are known only because of coins bearing their name. Specific areas conquered by Alexander's invading army, including Egypt and areas of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia "fell" willingly to conquest and viewed Alexander as more of a liberator than a conqueror.. In 247 BC, following the death of Antiochus II Theos, Andragoras, the Seleucid governor of Parthia, proclaimed his independence and began minting coins showing himself wearing a royal diadem and claiming kingship. Further ruin was brought to Greece by the Roman civil wars, which were partly fought in Greece. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. The use of heavily armored cataphracts and also horse archers was adopted by the Seleucids, Greco-Bactrians, Armenians and Pontus. Southern Greece was now thoroughly brought into the Roman sphere of influence, though it retained nominal autonomy. He was known as "the darling of Hellas". , Period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history, "Greek world" redirects here. To make the army unified he issued new uni… Through them, Greek civilization spread right across the Middle East and amalgamated with local cultures producing a hybrid civilization. Hellenistic culture was at its height of world influence in the Hellenistic period. Hellenistic age, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 bce. Perhaps the most remarkable Hellenistic figure was the philosopher Aristotle who was Plato’s successor. After Cassander's death in c. 298 BC, however, Demetrius, who still maintained a sizable loyal army and fleet, invaded Macedon, seized the Macedonian throne (294 BC) and conquered Thessaly and most of central Greece (293–291 BC). The Hellenistic period refers to the time from the death of Alexander the Great or the end of the Greek Classical Era in 323 B.C. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. Most of the native population was not Hellenized, had little access to Greek culture and often found themselves discriminated against by their Hellenic overlords.  This may be inextricably linked with the nature of government. Some Greek cities now thought of Antiochus as their saviour from Roman rule, but Macedon threw its lot in with Rome. Magic was practiced widely, and this, too, was a continuation from earlier times. Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period, usually taken as starting with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ending with the invasion of the Greek world by the Romans, a cycle well under way by 146 BCE when the Greek mainland was conquered, and culminating ultimately in 30 BCE with the invasion of Ptolemaic Egypt after the Battle of Actium. In c. 210 BC, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was invaded by a resurgent Seleucid empire under Antiochus III. The First Macedonian War broke out in 212 BC, and ended inconclusively in 205 BC. The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work that dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death.  The final Greek resistance came in 88 BC, when King Mithridates of Pontus rebelled against Rome, captured Roman held Anatolia, and massacred up to 100,000 Romans and Roman allies across Asia Minor. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Hellenistic Greece In 336 B.C., Alexander the Great became the leader of the Greek kingdom of Macedonia. While there does seem to have been a substantial decline in religiosity, this was mostly reserved for the educated classes.. "Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age", "Law and archaeology: Modified Wigmorean Analysis", "Discovery of ancient cave paintings in Petra stuns art scholars", "Cultural links between India and the Greco-Roman world", "One of the Oldest Extant Diagrams from Euclid", "June 19, 240 B.C.E: The Earth Is Round, and It's This Big", The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, "The Epoch of the Constellations on the Farnese Atlas and Their Origin in Hipparchus's Lost Catalogue", "Early Astronomical 'Computer' Found to Be Technically Complex", Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies, Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition at the MET, Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies, Greece and the International Monetary Fund, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenistic_period&oldid=998353284, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with failed verification from April 2010, Articles with failed verification from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Goodman, Martin. 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