eugène marais history

eugène marais history

“Maeterlinck’s guilt is clear”, Ardrey wrote. Settling near a large group of chacma baboons, he became the first man to conduct a prolonged study of primates in the wild. However, Marais was half a hemisphere away, half a century too soon and writing in a language no one could understand. In 1936, deprived of morphine for some days, he borrowed a shotgun on the pretext of killing a snake and shot himself in the chest. He developed a fresh and radically different view of how a termite colony works, and indeed, of what a termite colony is. With his phyletic memory and his causal memory, he described two psychic forces cleanly and with sufficient definition to permit his investigation of the evolutionary origins of the conscious and unconscious minds.” (Marais, 1989:44-46) The planned companion volume on the psyche of the baboon, The Soul of the Ape, was never finished. [3] See also: Washburn, JL & De Vore, I. “Marais, it seems to me, has provided us with a superior term for the quality in life, which if we cannot explain, we still cannot deny. ’Social behavior of Baboons and early man.’ In Washburn JL (Ed. In 1923, he began writing a series of popular articles on termites for the Afrikaans press and in 1925; he published a major article summing up his work in the Afrikaans magazine Die Huisgenoot. [3] See also: Washburn, JL & De Vore, I. In 1948, twelve years after Marais’ death, Nikolaas Tinbergen[2] (1907-1988) reformulated Marais’ extremely important concept of the phyletic (inborn) and causal (acquired) memory. The Dark Stream not only offers a fascinating insight into one of the most complex and outstanding Afrikaners who ever lived but is at the same time a panorama of South African history. In 1948, twelve years after Marais’ death. Several excerpts were published in Afrikaans, but the book itself never appeared. One drop of dew glistens Later, in 1935, Marais wrote to Dr Winifred de Kok in London. Maybe before his death he told his son that, or maybe the son decided it for himself. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment; current: 07:25, 10 June 2005: 253 × 365 A certain attribute of organic matter. EUGÈNE Marais was a South African poet, a story-teller, a journalist, a lawyer, a psychologist, a natural scientist, a drug-addict, and a great genius -- an abused and forgotten genius, and the world is the worse off for that. He has been described as “… a human community in one man. University of Iowa Libraries But we must recall that Freud too used hypnosis as a technique in his discovery of the unconscious mind. ), Social life of early Man. (EB) Von Frisch, Lorenz and Tinbergen shared the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology for having opened a new field of science, ethology. Although Marais is remembered by South Africans more for his contribution to Afrikaans literature than for science, he has been described as being a scientist far ahead of his time. [1], Marais was born in Pretoria,[1] the thirteenth and last child of Jan Christiaan Nielen Marais and Catharina Helena Cornelia van Niekerk. In 1911, he won the Nobel Prize for literature following the success of his play The Bluebird. In ants, mating occurs before the nest is founded and the male dies after mating – he does not become a king, and live and mate with the queen in the new colony, as in termites. From 1905 Marais studied nature in the Waterberg ('Water mountain'), a wilderness area north of Pretoria, and wrote in his native Afrikaans about the animals he observed. Maeterlinck was able to do this because he was Flemish and therefore understood Dutch, from which Afrikaans was derived. With his phyletic memory and his causal memory, he described two psychic forces cleanly and with sufficient definition to permit his investigation of the evolutionary origins of the conscious and unconscious minds.” (Marais, 1989:44-46) The planned companion volume on the psyche of the baboon, The Soul of the Ape, was never finished. Eugene Marais was an Afrikaner who in the course of his lifetime was a journalist, lawyer, poet, and amateur naturalist. Maeterlinck’s book was met with outrage in South Africa. In both fields, his findings were revolutionary. [2] He qualified as an advocate. In 1911, he won the Nobel Prize for literature following the success of his play The Bluebird. It is inherent in life; like most natural phenomena it is polarised, there is a negative and a positive pole. Here he studied two creatures – termites and baboons that, on the face of it, had nothing in common. Lorenz and Karl von Frisch, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1973. There is evidence [5] that Marais' time and research in the Waterberg brought him great peace and joy and provided him with artistic inspiration. One flaw is that it is definitely not finished – suddenly it just stops. Yet never does the one wholly succeed the other. Marais’ point is indisputable: his picture of the termitary is startlingly original, it could not possibly have been hypothesised or inferred without a great deal of original research, at the very least – and yet there it is in Maeterlinck’s book.Yet it is impossible to ignore the fact that Marais’ work is revolutionary, especially if one takes into account the time and place in which it was written. Soon after Marais’ death in 1936, Dr Winifred de Kok wrote to Marais’ son asking about his father’s papers, and especially about the manuscript of the unfinished and unpublished The Soul of the Ape, which Marais had discussed with her a few months before his death. The 1927 files at The Star to which Marais referred were checked and confirmed by American author and social anthropologist Robert Ardrey (1908-1980) forty years later. He began life after leaving college as a journalist, then studied medicine for four years, but eventually took up law and was called to the bar by the Inner Temple. The Marais of The Soul of the White Ant is a charming and engaging fellow, a thoroughly good companion, but in The Soul of the Ape another Marais seems occasionally to intrude, perhaps the ‘sombre side’ his friends sometimes alluded to, that his children friends never saw in their Pied Piper. However, it was not only as jurist that Marais distinguished himself as a brilliant (yet eccentric) character in South African history. His notes on baboon behaviour in The Soul of the Ape are regarded as honest and reliable by modern ethologists. (EB) Von Frisch, Lorenz and Tinbergen shared the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology for having opened a new field of science, ethology. [Eugène Marais]. I lived among a troop of wild baboons for three years. A further work summing up and integrating his findings and conclusions in the two branches of his investigations should have followed, but it did not. “Marais, it seems to me, has provided us with a superior term for the quality in life, which if we cannot explain, we still cannot deny. The Soul of the White Ant was brought under the attention of the world only by being seemingly plagiarised by a Belgian Nobel prize laureate, Maurice Maeterlinck. [7] The Marais name has retained its original French spelling and pronunciation[13] in South Africa. [3] See also: Washburn, JL & De Vore, I. But we must recall that Freud too used hypnosis as a technique in his discovery of the unconscious mind. Those species best able to adapt to their specific environment survived, while those not able to, would become extinct. Die hospitaal is op 19 Maart 1973 geopen en is na die dokter en digter, Eugène Marais, genoem.Dit is 'n deel van die Life Healthcare-groep. Both fascinated him, as did all wild creatures. I think I discovered the real place in nature of the hypnotic condition in the lower animals and men. So uncertain was their affection that I had always to go armed with a Mauser automatic under the left armpit like the American gangster! Marais was one of the most innovative Afrikaans writers and a pioneer of the usage of free verse in Afrikaans. It was sixty years before anyone else attempted to study what he had studied (ape societies in the wild). So uncertain was their affection that I had always to go armed with a Mauser automatic under the left armpit like the American gangster! “Phyletic memory is Marais’ term for what we should call instinct. I lived among a troop of wild baboons for three years. The name of Eugène Marais, pioneering ethologist, was not mentioned. I think I discovered the real place in nature of the hypnotic condition in the lower animals and men. It is a flawed work, and Marais knew it, as his letters make clear. Eugène Nielen Marais (1871-1936) was a South African lawyer, naturalist, poet, and writer. “The publishers in South Africa started crying to high heaven and endeavoured to induce me to take legal action in Europe, a step for which I possessed neither the means nor inclination. “Someone once said that all behaviourism in nature could be referred to as hunger. Several excerpts were published in Afrikaans, but the book itself never appeared. Eugène Nielen Marais was a South African lawyer, naturalist, poet and writer. Settling near a large group of chacma baboons, he became the first man to conduct a prolonged study of primates in the wild. In 1901, he had written The Life of the Bee, a mixture of natural history and philosophy, but he was a dramatist and a poet, not a scientist. Marais’ work and his findings shine through – and profound they are, as pertinent today as they were then, or more so. He is known for his Afrikaans poetry as well as for books about nature. They trace their lineage to Normandy where the Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae lists Ivo, Drogo, Gilbert, Robert de Maris, in the Lordship of Maris, Normandy, 1180-95. “And the story of psychic evolution has been the gradual ascendancy of causal memory over phyletic. It is a flawed work, and Marais knew it, as his letters make clear. His book Die Siel van die Mier (The Soul of the Ant, but usually given in English as the Soul of the White Ant) was plagiarised by Nobel laureate Maurice Maeterlinck, who published La Vie des Termites (translated into English as The Life of Termites or The Life of White Ants), an entomological book,[3] in what has been called "a classic example of academic plagiarism" by University of London's professor of biology, David Bignell.[4]. “I followed them on their daily excursions; slept among them; fed them night and morning on mealies (corn); learned to know each one individually; taught them to trust and to love me – and also, to hate me so vehemently that my life was several times in danger. Yet the word instinct is too loose, so difficult to explain or define, so surrounded by controversy, and so subject to manipulation by those who would justify the worst or the best in human behaviour as instinctive, that many authorities refuse to use it. “And the story of psychic evolution has been the gradual ascendancy of causal memory over phyletic. As soon as one finds life, one finds this attribute. It is a flawed work, and Marais knew it, as his letters make clear. Role Title Holding Repository; creatorOf: Housman, Laurence, 1865-1959. Letters, 1890-1957. Thirteen years later, in 1961, Washburn and De Vore[3] published a lengthy article, ‘The Social Life of Baboons’, in the Scientific American. Die Wonderwerker tells the story of Eugène Marais, a famous Afrikaans writer, poet and researcher. Several excerpts were published in Afrikaans, but the book itself never appeared. As Marais saw them, the two exist side by side, or, more accurately, the old beneath the new. It is a flawed work, and Marais knew it, as his letters make clear. “Turning to Marais’ investigation of the phyletic memory in man, the startled reader may be wary of conclusions drawn from hypnosis. ), Social life of early Man. His theory was that, unlike termites, baboons – and by extension all primates – had the ability to memorise the relationship between cause and effect. Marais’ work and his findings shine through – and profound they are, as pertinent today as they were then, or more so. She was beginning her English translation of The Soul of the White Ant, “You must understand that it was a theory which was not only new to science but which no man born of woman could have arrived at without a knowledge of all the facts on which it was based; and these Maeterlinck quite obviously did not possess. They have symbiotic flagellates or bacteria in their hindguts that are able to break down plant cellulose to a digestible form and in the subfamily Macrotermitinae the termites culture and eat fungi in their nests using dead plant material. Marais’ work and his findings shine through – and profound they are, as pertinent today as they were then, or more so. I have an entirely new explanation of the so-called subconscious mind and the reason for its survival in man. He has been hailed as an intellectual genius and an Afrikaner hero. His "Winternag" was used as a symbol of the impact of Afrikaans writing. ’Social behavior of Baboons and early man.’ In Washburn JL (Ed. Causal memory is the conscious portion, the learned portion, the portion springing from experiences within the baboon’s lifetime. [3] See also: Washburn, JL & De Vore, I. If so, much of the blame for that is to be laid at the door of Maurice Maeterlinck, plagiarist, who left nothing remotely comparable in his own work by way of compensation. Robert Ardrey says in his introduction to Marais’ work on ants and baboons published in 1973, “As a scientist he was unique, supreme in his time, yet a worker in a science unborn.” He was master of a science that was only invented fifty years later (ethology). He concluded secondly that the actions within the termitary were completely, instinctive. Marais was one of the most innovative Afrikaans writers and a pioneer of the usage of free verse in Afrikaans. Letter-writer, Land en Volk, 28 March 1895. Marais, Eugène N. (Eugène Nielen), 1871-1936. I have an entirely new explanation of the so-called subconscious mind and the reason for its survival in man. ’Social behavior of Baboons and early man.’ In Washburn JL (Ed. [5] Marais had published his ideas on the termitary in the South African Afrikaans-language press, both in Die Burger in January 1923 and in Huisgenoot, which featured a series of articles on termites under the title "Die Siel van die Mier" (The Soul of the (White) Ant) from 1925 to 1926. [1] See: [2] Tinbergen was the Dutch-born British zoologist and ethologist (specialist in animal behaviour) who, with Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1973. The book is still highly readable nonetheless. As soon as one finds life, one finds this attribute. Along with J.H.H. “All animals, large and small, possess some mechanism feeling pain, and this pain always acts as a safeguard against death.” (Eugène Marais, The Soul of the White Ant, 1989:261) Marais’ pain could not save him; in 1936, Eugene Marais killed himself with a shotgun on a farm near Pretoria. They are among the most important groups of animals on land because they play a vital role in breaking down dead plant material. of the East-wind refrain, Though some of their observations were contested, they were seen as the first serious observers of baboons in the wild (meaning not in captivity), a title which surely Marais had earned fifty years before. Eugène Marais (1871-1936) had twelve brothers and sisters and grew up between Pretoria, Boshof and Paarl, South Africa. Maybe before his death he told his son that, or maybe the son decided it for himself. “But I learned the innermost secrets of their lives. If so, much of the blame for that is to be laid at the door of Maurice Maeterlinck, plagiarist, who left nothing remotely comparable in his own work by way of compensation. It is a flawed work, and Marais knew it, as his letters make clear. “I followed them on their daily excursions; slept among them; fed them night and morning on mealies (corn); learned to know each one individually; taught them to trust and to love me – and also, to hate me so vehemently that my life was several times in danger. “All animals, large and small, possess some mechanism feeling pain, and this pain always acts as a safeguard against death.” (Eugène Marais, The Soul of the White Ant, 1989:261) Marais’ pain could not save him; in 1936, Eugene Marais killed himself with a shotgun on a farm near Pretoria. Swart, Sandra. The negative pole is pain; the positive pole is sex. Entabeni Hospital acquired with interest in the 125 bed Westville Hospital. Soon after Marais’ death in 1936, Dr Winifred de Kok wrote to Marais’ son asking about his father’s papers, and especially about the manuscript of the unfinished and unpublished The Soul of the Ape, which Marais had discussed with her a few months before his death. In every grass fold Marais’ point is indisputable: his picture of the termitary is startlingly original, it could not possibly have been hypothesised or inferred without a great deal of original research, at the very least – and yet there it is in Maeterlinck’s book.Yet it is impossible to ignore the fact that Marais’ work is revolutionary, especially if one takes into account the time and place in which it was written. (1871–1936). Marais’ pain could not save him; in 1936, Eugene Marais killed himself with a shotgun on a farm near Pretoria. PDF | The article gives a brief ‘idea history’ of Hesperian melancholy a.k.a. He also observed chacma baboons at length and he was the father of the scientific study of the behaviour of primates. The terminary itself is the body. Eugène Charles Gerard was Marais' only child. ), Social life of early Man. Because Marais refused to translate his works into English, they remained almost unknown outside of southern Africa, which is the only place in the world where Afrikaans is spoken to any degree. published. Maeterlinck was as a consequence one of the few people in Europe who had read Marais’ original texts. “And the story of psychic evolution has been the gradual ascendancy of causal memory over phyletic. “Maeterlinck’s guilt is clear”, Ardrey wrote. You must understand that it was not merely plagiarism of the spirit of a thing, so to speak. It is inherent in life; like most natural phenomena it is polarised, there is a negative and a positive pole. The conclusions to which he came were new and radical and might well have had an influence in Europe. 1962. He published The Soul of the White Ant (1937) and then My Friends the Baboons (1939) which was posthumously published after he had taken his life. To the high edge of the lands, 1962. on the east wind's drone, Add AuthorsDen to your Site The son responded: “There is no sign of a manuscript and no notes.” In 1968, 32 years later, without explanation, the son handed the unfinished manuscript of The Soul of the Ape to Marais’ old publishers in Cape Town, handwritten in Marais’ hand, in English, and, at last, it was published. ), Social life of early Man. He began life after leaving college as a journalist, then studied medicine for four years, but eventually took up law and was called to the bar by the Inner Temple. She was beginning her English translation of The Soul of the White Ant, “You must understand that it was a theory which was not only new to science but which no man born of woman could have arrived at without a knowledge of all the facts on which it was based; and these Maeterlinck quite obviously did not possess. Maybe before his death he told his son that, or maybe the son decided it for himself. Robert Ardrey says in his introduction to Marais’ work on ants and baboons published in 1973, “As a scientist he was unique, supreme in his time, yet a worker in a science unborn.” He was master of a science that was only invented fifty years later (ethology). spread through burnt bands Because Marais refused to translate his works into English, they remained almost unknown outside of southern Africa, which is the only place in the world where Afrikaans is spoken to any degree. Several excerpts were published in Afrikaans, but the book itself never appeared. Need Help? However, under pressure from his friends, he entered the Inner Temple to study law. Maeterlinck's own words in The Life of Termites indicate that the possible discovery or accusation of plagiarism worried him: It would have been easy, in regard to every statement, to allow the text to bristle with footnotes and references. The Marais of The Soul of the White Ant is a charming and engaging fellow, a thoroughly good companion, but in The Soul of the Ape another Marais seems occasionally to intrude, perhaps the ‘sombre side’ his friends sometimes alluded to, that his children friends never saw in their Pied Piper. It was published posthumously years later. Eugène Nielen Marais was ’n Afrikaanse en Engelse skrywer. I think I discovered the real place in nature of the hypnotic condition in the lower animals and men. He described natural mechanisms and systems that were not identified by mainstream science until forty years later (pheromones), and neither science nor society has yet caught up with many of his findings and conclusions. No man can ever attain to anywhere near a true conception of the subconscious in man who does not know the primates under natural conditions.” Robert Ardrey quotes as follow from Marais, “Phyletic memory forms the unconscious portion of the baboon psyche. The 1927 files at The Star to which Marais referred were checked and confirmed by American author and social anthropologist Robert Ardrey (1908-1980) forty years later. How all communicate (pheromones, telepathy?) The Soul of the White Ant was brought under the attention of the world only by being seemingly plagiarised by a Belgian Nobel prize laureate, Maurice Maeterlinck. No man can ever attain to anywhere near a true conception of the subconscious in man who does not know the primates under natural conditions.” Robert Ardrey quotes as follow from Marais, “Phyletic memory forms the unconscious portion of the baboon psyche. Their observations and the insights Marais gained from them formed the basis of a serious work later to be called The Soul of the Ape. The Marais of The Soul of the White Ant is a charming and engaging fellow, a thoroughly good companion, but in The Soul of the Ape another Marais seems occasionally to intrude, perhaps the ‘sombre side’ his friends sometimes alluded to, that his children friends never saw in their Pied Piper. The name of Eugène Marais, pioneering ethologist, was not mentioned. [1] See: [2] Tinbergen was the Dutch-born British zoologist and ethologist (specialist in animal behaviour) who, with Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1973. “Turning to Marais’ investigation of the phyletic memory in man, the startled reader may be wary of conclusions drawn from hypnosis. , which was named after him ( Encephalartos eugene-maraisii ) workers can be both and! But his ghost continues to haunt the discipline most important groups of animals on Land they. On termites led him to the high edge of the ideas of Richard Dawkins 1941-... Of Afrikaans writing of Iowa Libraries the Soul of the scientific study of Ape... The fleeting state of dejection that some humans and animals experience at dusk entomology include the life Eugene was. [ 10 ] of fallacy saying has been repeated thousands of times yet is false African observer had developed theory! 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